Manual Testing Day 2

Test Method:
1.Black Box Testing / Requirement / Specificatoin base/ Close Box
    >Giving Input & Checking outcome without knowing internal Structure
    >Done By Test Engineer
    >It also called as Functional Testing

2.White Box Testing/ Glass / Open Box Testing/ Structure Base Testing
    >Giving Input & Checking outcome with knowing internal Structure
    >Done by Developers

1.Test Planning & Controlling:
> Test Manager Creates Test Plan
> Sccope of Testing(What to Test & What not to test)
> Schedule
> Roles & Reponsibilities
> Exit Criteria/Passing Criteria

Monitoring Test Progress & if Deviation found with planned schedule & then responsible person will controlling activity so that project should be on track.

2.Test Analysis & Test Design
Test Analysis
Understanding Requirement(SRS/BRS/FRS/Design Doc/ Use Case)

Test Design:
Test Cases & Test Scenarios are Created

3.Test Implementation & Test Execution
Test Implementation:
>Test Scripts/ Procedure written Which is in Language of Tool
>Test Env is Setup done by Tester with help of System Engineer

Test Execution:(Actual Testing)
>Execution of Test cases on AUT(Application Under Test) Happens.
>Reporting any difference as Defect
>Creating Execution Log
>Done by Testers

4.Evaluate Exit Criteria & Reporting:
Checking whether exit criteria is meeting or not & Reporting to Manager
Test Summary Report

5.Test Clouser:
1.Done After Software get Release/ Cancelled
2.Store  & Share Learnings/Experince
3.Store & Share Documents/Test Deliverables/Test Artifacts.

Difference between Expected & Actual Result.

Error/Mistake      > An Incorrect Human Action during Development
Defect/Bug/Incident/fault    >During Testing any difference
Failure       > At Live Environment/Visible to Client/Customer

Types of Defect
1.Functional Defect :
2.Non Functional Defect:
7 Principles of Testing
1.Testing shows Presence of Defect
2.Exhaustive Testing is not possible
3.Early Testing
4.Defect Clustering
5.Pesticide Paradox
    Test Case Need to be updated at regular interval to maintain its defect finding capability.

6.Testing is Context dependent:
7.Absence of Error fallacy
Testing application which is not according to customer need is just
waste of time & Resources

SDLC Models:
1.Sequential Model
    1.Waterfall/ Linear Model
        Adv: 1.Good for Small Project
             2.Less Costier       
        Disadv:1.Can not roll back
               2.Not Good for Complex Project due to high chance of defect multiplication
            3.Requirement Addition and Modification not allowed
    2.V Model
2.Iterative/ Incremental Model/Multi Waterfall
    1.Requirement is splited in multiple iteration & delivered
    Adv:1.Getting working software in short period
        2.Requirement addition/modification to next iteration allowed
        3.Good for Complex and Big Project   

    Dis:1.Take Time & resources

    2.Extreme Programming
    Product Backlog: Requirement for Complete Product
    Sprint Backlog : Requirement for Single Iteration/Sprint
    Whole Team Approach : A Group of Dev ,Tester & Business
                Category People
    Duration : 1-4 weeks
    Daily stand up Meeting:
    Daily 15 min Meeting for avoiding communication Gap.
    3 Questions are asked
        1.What is done Yesterday ?
        2.Any Bottleneck ?
        3.What is plan for Today ?

    Face to Face Communication : It is more preferred to avoid communication     Gap
    1.Quality is not responsibility of individual Person
    2.Getting very good quality product since customer is
    acting as validator
    3.Requirement modification in same iteration is allowed

    1.More Time Consuming & Resource Consuming
    2.Not Good for Simple Project   

Verification/ Review

Verification Techniques
1.Informal Review
        > Following no Rules/Protocol
        >No Planning
        >No Documentation
        >Author is Also not involve
2.Walk through
    >Led by Author
    >Can be informal or formal
    >Feedback,finding defects, learning & Gaining
    >Done Between Colleagues
3.Technical Review
    >Led By Trained Moderator/Technical Expert
    >Can be formal or Informal
    >Discussion about Technical Alternative, Content , finding defect
    >Led by Trained Moderator/Expert
    >It is Formal
    >Finding Defect & Make decision about is Phase is completed &
    can we move to next phase
    >Checklist can be used for increasing defect finding capability

Formal Review Roles
    Decides Scope, Roles & Responsibilities/ Entry & Exit Criteria
    Schedule etc.
Moderator : Co-ordinator, Communicating time,venue ,agenda of Meeting
Author : Whose document under inspection
Reader : Who reads documents
Recorder / Scribe : Who maintain mom(minutes of meeting)
Reviewer / Inspector : Domain Expert

Formal Review Process:

    Decides Scope, Roles & Responsibilities/ Entry & Exit Criteria
    Schedule etc.
    Done by Manager
    Start initial Meeting for explaining doc & process
3.Individual Preparation
    Finding defects
4.Review Meeting
    Discussion & Logging Defect in Defect reporting Tool
    Fixing Defect

6.Follow up:
    Checking defect has been addressed
    Gathering metrix (How many defect found ,How many are fixed or Pending (a measurement unit/ Data))

Static Analysis:
Static Testing done by Tool called as Static Analysis

Static Analyzer


Validation Techniques/Levels of Testing
1.Unit Testing/Component Testing/Module Testing/Programmer Testing
    >Executing small piece of code that is able to provide some
    Output will be called as Unit Testing/Component/ Module /
    Programmer Testing
    >Done by mostly Programmer
    >Black & White Box both Approach can be used
2.Integration Testing
    >Checking Communication/ Interaction between two
    or more modules
        1.Top Down
        2.Bottom Up
3.System Testing
4.Acceptance Testing